What are Aphids?
Aphids are small, soft bodied sucking insects that typically have pear shaped bodies that are one tenth of an inch of less in length. They may or may not have wings and may be green, brown, black, pink, yellow or even colorless and tend to blend in with the leaf they are damaging. They tend to prefer young, tender growth.Aphids are unlike most insects in two ways:
- in Florida, almost all are females which reproduce without mating; and
- they seldom lay eggs, but give birth to living young, as many as 12 a day!
How can I tell if I have Aphids?
Clues can include a black coating on the leaves called sooty mold, curling leaves, or damaged flower buds. The insects themselves are often found on stems or the undersides of leaves. By the time you see them on top you usually have BIG problems!
What plants tend to attract Aphids?
Aphids are certainly attracted to some plants more than others. They love peppers, cabbage, kale and squash to name just a few.
What can I do to prevent Aphids?
Aphids dislike garlic, chives, onions, mint and petunias so planting these can help deter them.
Some examples of aphid predators are lady beetles (adults and larvae), hover fly larvae, assassin bugs, ambush bugs and spiders. If predators are present or the pests show signs of parasitism, every effort should be made to preserve the beneficial insects. Delay applying a pesticide until damage appears, and provide the beneficials an opportunity to control the pest populations.
There are literally hundreds of different solutions you can buy or make to use to control or prevent aphids. It is important to follow directions regarding time and frequency of application. Most pesticides should be applied no more than every 4 days, some just once a week. They should be applied after the sun goes down for a couple of reasons.
- Many contain oil and spraying during the day could cause the leaves to be burnt by the sun.
- Bees and other beneficial insects will not be around and possibly harmed by the solution. They may be organic but they can still be harmful to good, as well as bad insects.
You can remove aphids and keep populations below damaging levels by spraying with a forceful stream of water. Use an adjustable nozzle on a hose and spray on the underside of leaves or on stems where aphids appear.
Soaps and detergents act strictly as contact insecticides, with no residual effect. To be effective, sprays must be applied directly to and thoroughly cover the insect. Some household soaps and detergents also make effective insecticides. In particular, certain brands of hand soaps and liquid dishwashing detergents can be effective for this purpose. They are also substantially less expensive. However, there is increased risk of plant injury with these products. They are not designed for use on plants. Dry dish soaps and all clothes-washing detergents are too harsh to be used on plants. Also, many soaps and detergents are poor insecticides. Identifying safe and effective soap-detergent combinations for insect control requires experimentation. Regardless of what product is used, soap-detergent sprays are always applied diluted with water, typically at a concentration of around 2 to 3 percent. Mix it in a spray bottle and VOILA!
|Approximate mix to produce various dilute soap sprays.|
|Percent dilution desired||Approximate amount of soap to add to water to produce:|
|1||2 1/2 Tbsp (-)||2 tsp (+)||1 tsp (+)|
|2||5 Tbsp (-)||4 tsp (+)||2 tsp (+)|
|3||8 Tbsp (+)||2 Tbsp (+)||1 Tbsp (+)|
|4||10 Tbsp (-)||2 1/2 Tbsp (+)||4 tsp (+)|
|(+) Will produce a solution of slightly higher concentration than indicated.
(-) Will produce a solution of slightly lower concentration than indicated.
Repeat applications may be needed at relatively short intervals (four to seven days). Also, application must be thorough and completely wet the pest. This usually means spraying undersides of leaves and other protected sites. Insects that cannot be completely wetted, such as aphids within curled leaves, will not be controlled.
Insecticidal Soap (pre-made
Many brands offer ready to use (RTU) Insecticidal Soap sprays. Safer, Garden Safe and Espoma, and Bonide all offer sprays approved for organic gardening.
Ladybugs are a great natural, non-toxic, biological way to control aphids and they can eat up to 50 a day! You can purchase live ladybugs (well they’re no good dead) in quantities of 150 up. 150 ladybugs is enough for a small yard.
Sticky Traps are a safe, non-toxic, long lasting, weatherproof trap that attracts a wide array of insects including aphids, whiteflies, leafminers, thrips, leafhoppers and moths.
Neem oil is another good organic pesticide. However, it is important to spray it in the evening to avoid contact with bees or other beneficial insects.
You will find a plethora of homemade concoctions for dealing with aphids with a simple search online. Below you will find a couple of common recipes.
Tomato Leaf Spray
Tomato plants, as members of the nightshade family, contain toxic compounds called alkaloids in their leaves. When the leaves of tomato plants are chopped, they release their alkaloids. When the alkaloids are suspended and diluted with water, they make an easy to use spray that is toxic to aphids, but still safe around plants and humans.
What You’ll Need:
- One to two cups of tomato leaves
- Two cups of water
- A strainer or cheesecloth
- Spray bottle
To make tomato leaf spray, simply soak one to two cups of chopped tomato leaves in two cups of water. Let it steep overnight. To make the spray, strain the leaves out of the liquid using cheesecloth or a fine strainer. Add another one to two cups of water to the liquid and add it to a spray bottle.
To use the tomato leaf spray in your battle against aphids, spray the stems and foliage of the infested plant with the spray, paying special attention to the undersides of leaves, since that is where aphids most commonly congregate.
Caution: While this spray is very safe for humans, some people are allergic to members of the nightshade family. If you are one of them, use care in making and applying this spray.
Garlic Water Spray
Crush a half dozen garlic cloves and let them sit in water for a few days, then spray the solution on leaves and other areas of plants that are infected with aphids
Here is an aphid insecticide recipe taken from the Essential Oil Desk Reference:
- 10 Drops of Spearmint Essential Oil
- 15 Drops of Orange Essential Oil
- 2 Quarts of Salt Water
Shake it up and spray it on the plant!
Ginger spray: Mix ½ cup of finely chopped ginger with two cups of warm water, and let it sit for a few hours. Shake well and spray your plants. It won’t kill existing aphids, but it will repel them with weekly sprayings.
What do you use to control Aphids in your garden?